Please read Dr. Aleksunes’ article in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology titled, “Cadmium reduces growth of male fetuses by impairing development of the placental vasculature and reducing expression of nutrient transporters.“
Accumulating data in rodents and humans suggest that exposure to environmental toxicants during gestation increases the risk of smaller birth size. The direct effect of xenobiotics on the fetus has been the focus of most research; however, increasing evidence indicates that the placenta is a critical indirect toxicological target leading to restricted fetal growth. In particular, cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental toxicant that has been associated with developmental toxicity. Human exposure to Cd occurs through ingestion of contaminated diet and drinking water, in the workplace through inhalation of airborne Cd, and by smoking tobacco cigarettes. Measurable levels of Cd have been detected in up to 98% of pregnant women from cohorts in the United States, Canada, and Argentina with a median level of 0.2 μg/L blood which can be as high as about 4 μg/L in women in China. Cd accumulates in the kidney, liver, and placenta, leading to cellular stress and disruption of organ functions. Cd levels in placentas vary greatly among individuals with ∼5 ng/g reported in the United States, ∼110 to 310 ng/g in Bangladesh and China, and about 50 ng/g to up to 4360 ng/g in Saudi Arabia. To read the full article.
Cadmium reduces growth of male fetuses by impairing development of the placental vasculature and reducing expression of nutrient transporters. Kozlosky D, Lu A, Doherty C, Buckley B, Goedken MJ, Miller RK, Barrett ES, Aleksunes LM. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2023 Sep 15;475:116636. PMID: 37487938 DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2023.116636 Epub 2023 Jul 22.